Sierra - provinces


Capital: Cuenca, founded on 12 April 1557
Surface Area: 7701 km2
Population: 506090 inhabitants
(Telephone) Area Code: 07

The province’s climate is defined by areas of moorland located in the highlands and humid and a semi-humid mesothermal climate in the rest of the province. The average temperature ranges between 12 and 20 degrees Celsius.

Azuay’s fertile soil is suitable for agriculture. In its central valleys, corn, cereals, vegetables and a variety of fruits are cultivated, while tropical products such as sugar cane, cotton, coffee, among others, are obtained at the western end of the range.
The livestock sector is characterized by the raising of sheep, cattle and pigs.


Capital: Guaranda
Surface Area: 3939.9 km2
Population: 183665 inhabitants
(Telephone) Area Code: 03

The climate ranges from 8 to 20 degrees Celsius. The high plateaus have cold Andean weather; interior plateaus and platforms have a temperate Andean climate. The western zone reaches the tropical lower Andes, with constant humidity allowing for successful agriculture.

The main natural resources are diversified agriculture, livestock, mining, manufacturing and crafts. It also has armoury, mining and dairy industries.


Capital: Azogues
Surface Area: 3908 km2
Population: 225184 inhabitants
(Telephone) Area Code: 07

Its climatic zones are established in the same way as in other highland provinces: mountain climate in the highlands; mesothermal humid and semi-humid inside the province and tropical monsoon in the lower parts of the western foothills.

In terms of agriculture, there is a variety of crops such as wheat, barley, potatoes, vegetables, legumes, vegetables and grassland areas in temperate zones, while in hot sectors there is coffee, rice, sugar cane, bananas and several tropical fruits. In forested areas, species such as cedar, laurel, palo prieto and ishpingo can be found.

Livestock is the most important in the raising of cattle, allowing a good production of milk and meat.

The region’s small manufacturing industry is considered a valuable source of income, especially in the food, footwear, textiles and furniture sectors.

In the mining area near the city of Azogues, there are unexploited deposits of kaolin, clay, bentonite and coal.


Capital: Tulcán
Surface Area: 3605 km2
Population: 167175 inhabitants
(Telephone) Area Code: 06

The climate is desert, mesothermal, humid and semi-humid. Temperatures range between 10 and 15 degrees Celsius. Towards the Chota Valley, the climate is influenced by a mesothermal dry state.

Its natural resources are agriculture, livestock, forestry and mining.

Its main industries are food and beverage, sausage, dairy, agriculture, coffee, and leather production.

There is border trade in agricultural and manufactured products, legalized as a result of integration agreements between Ecuador and Colombia.


Capital: Riobamba
Surface Area: 6569 km2
Population: 403632 inhabitants
(Telephone) Area Code: 03

The climate varies with altitude, ranging from one to four thousand meters above sea level, with temperatures ranging from 6 to 20 degrees Celsius. The average temperature is 13 degrees Celsius.
Its main industries are ceramics, carpets, cement, dairy and food products, as well as varied manufactured goods.


Capital: Latacunga
Surface Area: 6071 km2
Population: 303489 inhabitants
(Telephone) Area Code: 03

In general, the province has an average annual temperature of 12 degrees Celsius and a mild climate.

As the Latacunga Valley has suitable land for agricultural production, among its major natural resources are barley, wheat, corn, vegetables and fruits such as cherry, pear, apple, claudias /gage, mirabelles, banana passionfruit (taxo), peach, uvilla (similar to tomatillo), cactus fruit (tuna), tomato, reina-claudia fig and quince trees.  The western part is suitable for the cultivation of bananas, sugar cane, fruit and various tropical products. Due to the region’s wooded areas consisting of walnut, alder, laurel and oak trees, among others, its forest wealth is considerable.


Capital: Ibarra
Surface Area: 4559.3 km2
Population: 329755 inhabitants
(Telephone) Area Code: 06

The main natural resources are agricultural products: soft corn and sugarcane. There are also limestone and natural hot springs, tropical fruits and production of reeds and sisal.
In terms of industry, the region works in textile, leather, cement, food and beverages and wood carving production. One of the main industrial centres is the Tababuela sugar mill. There is also the Selva Alegre cement factory and San Antonio de Ibarra, which is the country's first artistic centre. Furthermore, Cotacachi is known for its beautiful leather crafts.


Capital: Loja
Surface Area: 11026.5 km2
Population: 429010 inhabitants
(Telephone) Area Code: 07

Its main natural resources include corn, sugarcane, nuts, gold and copper, among other minerals.
Its main industries involve sugar, sausage, craft and food and beverage production.


Capital: Quito
Surface Area: 13000 km2
Population: 2600000 inhabitants
(Telephone) Area Code: 02

Pichincha has the country’s most diversified agricultural production, represented by potato, barley, beans and pasture in the highlands and wheat, corn, vegetables and fruits in the valleys and lower slopes. In the western area, coffee, rice, cocoa, cassava, banana, oil palm and tropical fruits are cultivated.

Livestock is an important source of income. Raising cattle has allowed for remarkable meat and milk production. The poultry sector has also constituted a significant source of economic income.  Industrial activities are some of the most nationally representative.

Most agro-industries are aimed at food production, textiles, liquor, pharmaceutical chemistry, engineering and the automotive sector.


Capital: Ambato
Surface Area: 1200 km2
Population: 297011 inhabitants
(Telephone) Area Code: 03

Its main natural resources are tubers, roots, vegetables, fruits and flowers.
The main industries include footwear, leather, garment, textile, clothing, furniture, chemical and food and beverage production.

Clothing, electricity, footwear, apparel and leather crafts.

One of its main attractions is the Feria de Ambato, in which both the carnival and the Feast of Flowers and Fruits are celebrated, which includes cultural, artistic and academic activities such as the International Folklore Festival, the Luis A. Martinez National Painting Gallery, the floral games, book fair, theatre and dance festivals, coronation of the Queen and grand parade.

Additional information